Sammy Account - Demo Pet Profile

Confirmed Medical Conditions


  • Elbow Dysplasia
Monitored Health Metrics
74 lbs
Pet Owner Concerns
Current Medications


  • Rabies
  • Parvo/Distemper/Hepatitis
  • trifexus
  • Revolution
My Clinic
  • Orivet vet clinic
DNA Tests Result

Haemolymphatic - Associated with the blood and lymph
CLEAR : 14 -- --
Ophthalmologic - Associated with the eyes and associated structures
CLEAR : 26 POSITIVE : 2 --
Urogenital (Associated with the Urinary and Genital Tracts)
CARRIER : 1 CLEAR : 7 --
Nervous system / Neurologic - Associated with the brain, spinal cord and nerves
CLEAR : 31 POSITIVE : 2 --
Metabolic - Associated with the enzymes and metabolic processes of cells
CLEAR : 13 -- --
Musculoskeletal - Associated with muscles, bones and associated structures
CLEAR : 10 -- --
Immunologic - Associated with the organs and cells of the immune system
CLEAR : 2 -- --
Cardiorespiratory (Associated with Heart and Lungs)
CLEAR : 2 -- --
Dermatologic - Associated with the skin
CLEAR : 4 -- --
Trait (Associated with Phenotype)
CLEAR : 1 -- --



Health Risks

The list below was generated by our proprietary algorithm. It takes into account Sammy's breed makeup, age, weight, sex and other lifestyle factors.

Please note. It does not mean Sammy will ever actually contract any of these diseases. It only represents an increased RISK when comparing Sammy's genetic information to published scientific information available.

# Disease Impact Rank Estimated prevalence Result
1
Allergy and Atopy
NONE
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Screening Suggestions (when available)
Note: there is no routine screening available prior to development of clinical signs.

Allergic and immune mediated diseases are becoming much more prevalent in dogs in the last 1-2 decades.  Allergic diseases are thought likely have a genetic predisposition, but environmental triggers play a major role in their development. 

 

Allergic dermatitis is a very common skin problem in dogs, and can be due to things such as flea allergy, food allergy and allergy to plants or other substances in the environment (e.g. moulds, dust mites, pollens).  The latter type of allergic dermatitis is called atopy.  Differentiating food allergy from atopy can be a major diagnostic challenge, involving food trials that may take months to complete.  It is also possible for both conditions to be present in the one animal at the same time.

 

Atopy is a very common condition which has also been referred to as allergic inhalant dermatitis.  Affected dogs develop an allergic reaction to common environmental substances, such as pollens, moulds and house dust, which are inhaled in the normal course of the dog’s life.  Atopy is strongly heritable, and affected dogs are thought to inherit a genetic predisposition to develop allergic antibodies.  Diagnosis is by skin testing with allergens (allergy skin test), which is much more accurate than blood tests, and is performed by veterinary dermatologists.

 

Affected dogs have generalised itchiness, and will scratch, lick or chew at their feet and other areas of their skin.  They can sometimes damage their skin quite severely, and secondary bacterial infection once the skin is damaged is quite common.  Sneezing and other respiratory signs are not common, despite the allergen being inhaled - only around 15% of affected dogs show respiratory signs (except in the Dalmatian, which is much more likely to sneeze).

 

Treatment can involve various anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressing drugs, as well as desensitisation therapy, fatty acid supplements and various lotions and shampoos.  Secondary infections are also treated as they arise.  Immunotherapy (allergen specific desensitisation) is the best option available to control the condition in the long term, without the side effects of steroids and other immune-suppressing drugs.

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2
Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture
AFFECTED
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Screening Suggestions (when available)
There is no screening test available for this condition prior to actual ligament rupture.

Cranial cruciate ligament rupture is a common injury in dogs, with a prevalence of 2.55% reported across the dog population in general. Any breed and any dog can be affected by this condition. Some breeds are predisposed to this condition however, with the prevalence in the Rottweiler reported to be 8.3%. It is believed that this condition occurs more in these breeds not just due to trauma, but due to degeneration of the ligament itself leading to a weakness of the ligament. Factors that contribute to ligament degeneration include: obesity, osteoarthritis and other inflammatory joint conditions, as well as genetics.

 

Cranial cruciate ligament rupture causes acute lameness in the affected hind limb. The torn ligament and resulting instability of the stifle (knee) joint leads to inflammation, and eventually joint capsule thickening in an attempt to stabilise the joint. Arthritic changes will also develop over time. The most common age that this injury occurs in dogs is 7 – 10 years, with large breeds tending to be affected at a younger age than smaller breeds.

Diagnosis is indicated by a positive drawer sign on examination on the joint, and definitively by x-rays with a specific “picture” of the knee required (stressed view with tibial compression). Often sedation or anaesthesia is required for a full examination due to the pain in the joint. Surgical repair is usually required to stabilise the joint and reduce the risk of arthritis later in life. It is not uncommon for the opposite cruciate to also rupture at some time in the future.

In some dogs, especially small dogs, medical management can be successful. However, because the knee joint is unstable, it is always prone to injury more easily in the future, and once arthritis forms (which is the body’s attempt to stabilise the area) surgery will no longer take away your dog’s pain. The decision to go ahead with surgical repair of the joint is best made early for best results to be obtained. You should also spend some time researching the experience level and results previously obtained by your surgeon, and do not be afraid to seek a second opinion! Surgery is generally always recommended in large dogs, and several techniques are available.

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3
Diabetes Mellitus.
NONE
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Screening Suggestions (when available)
Currently no screening available

Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is thought to develop due to a genetic tendency to develop an immune mediated process that results in the destruction of the cells that naturally produce insulin. These cells are located in the pancreas, and once around 75% have been destroyed, normal control over blood glucose levels can no longer be maintained. Hyperglycaemia (a high level of glucose in the blood) is the result. Diabetes mellitus has been shown to be an inherited disease in the keeshond, but this has not been proven in other breeds so far. It is thought to be a familial trait in many other breeds however. Around half of affected dogs will have measurable antibodies against the pancreatic beta cells (the cells that normally produce insulin) in their blood. 

A lack of insulin production reduces the ability of almost all cells to be able to use glucose as energy. This means these cells must find other sources of energy if they are to survive and function, and so many metabolic changes take place throughout the body. These changes are not normal, and lead to a disease state known as acidosis. Affected animals typically will drink more and urinate more than normal, due to the diuretic effect that the high level of glucose in the blood (and hence in the urine) has. They also will tend to want to eat more than usual, but often will still lose weight – this is because they cannot metabolise energy the way the body normally should, and they use their fat stores as an alternate source of energy for cells. The glucose in the urine can commonly cause infections in the urinary tract. Some dogs may develop a state of collapse and severe illness known as ketosis or ketoacidosis. This is a life-threatening complication of very severe diabetes and usually blood glucose levels are extremely high. Intensive treatment is required for ketoacidosis. 

Diabetes mellitus is generally treated with insulin therapy. There are a number of different types and ways of doing this, but the most common remains daily injections. Sometimes the food is changed to be higher in fibre, but it is controversial as to whether this is beneficial. The blood glucose is monitored by various methods, both at home and through regular testing, to ensure that the dose of insulin given is correct. Too much insulin can cause hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose levels) which can lead to seizures and even death. Most diabetic dogs live full and happy lives once they are on a regular routine of insulin and set meals and once their owners know how to monitor them and recognise any problems that may occur.

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4
Elbow Dysplasia
NONE
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Screening Suggestions (when available)
1. Recognized radiographic screening technique under general anaesthesia at 12 - 24 months of age (usually done at same time as hip dysplasia screening) and assessed by accredited radiologist.

Elbow dysplasia refers to a group of four developmental disorders affecting the elbow and leading to forelimb lameness in large breed dogs. It is inherited, and has a high heritability, with certain breeds showing increased prevalence of the disease.

 

One or more of the following abnormalities may be seen in either one or both elbows of affected animals:

Ununited anconeal process (UAP)

Fragmented medial coronoid process (FCP)

Osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle (osteochondritis dissecans, or OCD, occurs once a cartilage flap forms in the joint)

Incongruity due to asynchronous proximal growth of the radius and ulna

 

Elbow dysplasia is one of the most common causes of forelimb lameness in large breed dogs. Onset of joint pain is usually between 4 – 10 months, with lameness made worse following exercise. Some dogs may not show pain and lameness until later in life, when degenerative joint changes and arthritis becomes apparent.

 

Treatment depends on the type of abnormality that is present, which is determined by x-ray. FCP is the most common form of elbow dysplasia in dogs, and for this form of the disease medical management is usually recommended, as surgical treatment has not been shown to improve the outcome for the patient. Other forms of elbow dysplasia regularly seen, OCD of the elbow and UAP, are recommended to be treated surgically to obtain the best outcome, and the prognosis is good if surgery is performed as early as possible, before any bony joint change (e.g. arthritis) occurs.

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5
Epilepsy (Idiopathic, Primary or Inherited Seizures)
NONE
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Screening Suggestions (when available)
No screening currently available - thorough work up of all cases of seizure recommended.

Epilepsy is a disease characterised by seizures, and is diagnosed by ruling out all possible reasons or causes for seizures – causes such as disease or trauma to the brain, metabolic disease (such as low levels of glucose or calcium in the blood), or exposure to toxins. When no cause for seizures is present, this is called primary or idiopathic seizures - or epilepsy - and is generally accepted to have a genetic basis. The precise method of inheritance is not known, but is suspected to be recessive and affected by several genes.

 

Epilepsy generally presents between 1.5 and 3 years of age, although it may be seen between 6 months and 5 years. Dogs whose seizures begin at less than 2 years of age are more likely to have severe disease that is more difficult to control.

 

Seizures are almost always generalised, or “grand mal” type, and will begin initially as a single seizure followed by recovery. Also called “tonic-clonic” seizures, there is a period where the dog goes stiff and falls (if standing), followed by a variable period of repeated muscle contractions (jaw chomping, legs jerking). Salivation occurs and loss of bladder and/or bowel control may also occur. The seizure will last up to a minute or two, followed by a variable recovery period.

 

Epilepsy cannot be cured, and a dog will continue to suffer seizures for the rest of its life. Seizures tend to occur more and more frequently if the condition is left untreated, and can be fatal in severe cases. Treatment is with anti-seizure medication (anticonvulsants), and aims to reduce the occurrence and severity of seizures.

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6
Histiocytic Sarcoma Complex
NONE
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Screening Suggestions (when available)
None available at this time.

Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) complex comprises several diseases, including histiocytic sarcoma and malignant histiocytosis (MH). The names of these diseases are taken from the Histiocyte Society, an expert group in the field of histiocytic diseases.

 

Localised histiocytic sarcoma may be seen on the lower limbs, or around the joints. It is a cancer of histiocytic cells, which are specialised immune cells that are involved in collecting and presenting antigen to white blood cells. If a localised HS is treated early enough, it may have a good prognosis. Surgical removal of the mass is required, and if a joint is involved limb amputation may be required. It is important that all cancerous cells are removed to avoid recurrence and spread to other organs.

 

Disseminated histiocytic sarcoma is when an initial HS has undergone extensive spread throughout the body. It generally arises from a tumour in a hidden site, such as the lung or spleen. This type of HS is very difficult to treat, as there is cancerous disease in multiple tissues. Malignant histiocytosis is similar to disseminated HS in that MH is an aggressive disease where the cancer arises in multiple tissues at once. MH is thought to be rare, although it is difficult to differentiate from disseminated HS clinically.

 

The HS complex of diseases is most commonly recognised in the Bernese mountain dog, although it is seen in several other breeds, including the golden retriever, flat-coated retriever and Rottweiler.

In the Berner there is a familial pattern of inheritance, although the exact genetic mechanism of inheritance has yet to be determined. Common signs of HS include lethargy, weight loss and loss of appetite. If the lymph nodes of the lungs are involved there may be a cough or difficult respiration.

Sometimes tumours in the spine occur, leading to hind limb paralysis, or cancer in the brain may lead to seizures.

 

The treatment for disseminated HS and MH is chemotherapy, however the response to such treatment to date has generally been brief. The prognosis is poor for both forms of disease, and both will ultimately lead to death or euthanasia.

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7
Hypothyroidism
CLEAR
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Screening Suggestions (when available)
1. Consider TgAA at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 6 years (generally used in pure breed breeding certification programs). 1. Thyroid panel - ie baseline Total T4 & TSH. (Run tests in a “well” dog) - recommend annually from two years of age.

Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine (hormonal) disease in dogs, and most commonly occurs due to an immune-mediated process where the immune system destroys the thyroid gland (called lymphocytic thyroiditis). It is thought that the end stage of this immune-mediated destruction is an atrophied, fatty thyroid gland.

 

Hypothyroidism is a complex and progressive disease that is often not diagnosed until signs are well progressed, as early signs are non-specific and can vary widely.  They may consist (in the younger adult dog) of vague signs such as reduced energy levels, or increased susceptibility to infections.  Most veterinarians and owners do not test for this disease every time a relatively young dog gets an infection!  Also, when an animal is unwell, their thyroid hormone level is likely to be low regardless of how healthy their thyroid gland is, (called "sick euthyroid syndrome") which further complicates attempts to get an early diagnosis.

 

Late stage (advanced) signs of disease such as bilateral symmetrical alopecia (hair loss on both sides of the body), weight gain, poor cold tolerance and failure of clipped hair to regrow are more recognisable to the owner and veterinarian as signs of serious illness, although these signs are generally not seen until middle age or later.  These signs will generally lead a veterinarian to test for hypothyroidism.

 

In almost all breeds there is currently no DNA test for hypothyroidism, however there are recent improvements in screening tests, and in countries such as the UK and USA there are breeding certification programs for hypothyroidism (e.g.; Orthopedic Foundation for Animals Hypothyroidism Certification Program - see http://www.offa.org)

 

The OFA program bases certification on the thyroid hormone level test (fT4 and TSH), as well as a test for antibodies against thyroglobulin (TgAA), which is a good indicator for lymphocytic thyroiditis.  Testing as young as 1 year of age can pick up this disease, and certification for breeding can be provided, although re-testing at 2, 3, 4 and 6 years is recommended for dogs testing normal at 12  months.  It is strongly recommended that affected dogs not be used for breeding. 

 

Treatment of hypothyroidism is with daily hormone replacement using a synthetic thyroid hormone. This aims to maintain approximately normal levels of thyroid hormone within the animal.  Lifelong treatment is required, and if maintained, dogs will generally lead a normal, healthy life.

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8
Luxating patella
NONE
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Screening Suggestions (when available)
1. Easily detected on examination and manipulation by experienced veterinarian - should check for this in puppies if is a predisposed breed.

Luxating patella refers to a kneecap that can dislocate in and out of the groove that it normally sits in. Medial luxation (dislocation inwards, or towards the other leg) is considered heritable, and is usually seen in relatively young dogs and in small and toy breeds. Lateral luxation (dislocation outwards, away from the other leg) is seen later in life, around the age of 5 – 8 years in toy breeds, and heritability has not been proven as yet. In contrast, lateral luxation in large breeds is seen at around 5 – 6 months of age.

 

Luxating patella is a congenital problem (it is due to the conformation of the knee, and is present from birth), but the degree to which the patella can move out of the patellar groove of the knee tends to increase over time. The degree of luxation (dislocation) can be graded on a scale of 1 – 4, based on clinical examination by the veterinarian and on the amount of change to the knee joint (stifle) on x-ray.

 

Clinical signs of luxating patella may be hard to detect initially. Dogs may “skip” a step when running, or “bunny hop” in the back legs. Untreated, luxating patella will wear away at the bone of the leg on each side of the patellar groove, and arthritis will develop. This can lead to severe pain and lameness as a dog gets older.

 

In young dogs, surgery is generally recommended to correct the problem before bony changes and arthritis sets in. However surgery is less likely to be helpful once arthritis is present, and in older dogs’ treatment is generally aimed at managing pain.

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9
Mast Cell Tumour
No prevalence data is currently available
NONE
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Screening Suggestions (when available)
Thorough examination and palpation of skin surface (cutaneous form) annually at each veterinary check-up.

Mast cells are a type of immune cell involved in allergy and inflammation that is found in many tissues in the body.  Mast cell tumours of the skin (also called mastocytoma) are the most common skin cancer of dogs, and are thought to account for between 15 - 20% of canine skin tumours.  Mast cell tumours may also be found throughout the body, commonly in organs such as the intestine, spleen or liver.  Certain breeds with a predisposition for mast cell tumours include brachycephalic breeds (e.g. boxers, Boston terriers, bulldogs, pugs), retriever breeds and Rhodesian ridgebacks.

 

Mast cell tumours are commonly malignant, and are graded as to their severity by a specialist pathologist.  This helps to determine the treatment protocol and likely prognosis.  The outlook for a grade I mast cell tumour of the skin is relatively good, while a grade III-IV mast cell tumour carries a poor outlook, as the likelihood of prior spread (metastasis) is high.  Mast cell tumours are locally invasive, and generally require surgical removal with as wide a margin as possible to ensure no tumour cells are left behind. 

 

Mast cell tumours of the skin can be variable in appearance, and may appear quite suddenly and grow quickly, or may not change much at all for months, followed by sudden rapid growth.  Multiple lumps may appear at the same time.  Lumps may be raised and discrete, soft or solid feeling, or with more diffuse borders.  Release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine from tumours may lead to local and systemic signs, with the most common reported to be gastric ulceration (in around 25% of dogs). 

 

Diagnosis of mast cell tumour is generally by aspiration or biopsy of a tumour and examination by a veterinary pathologist.  As well as surgery, treatment may also include chemotherapy, radiation therapy and supportive medical therapy with H1 and H2 histamine blockers, antacids (e.g. proton pump inhibitors), sucralfate and occasionally misoprostol.  The prognosis is largely dependent on the staging of the tumour/s.

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10
Multi-Drug Sensitivity (MDR1)
CLEAR
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Screening Suggestions (when available)
DNA test available to screen for MDR1 mutation (available for puppies).

In certain breeds a mutation on the MDR1 gene (which stands for Multi Drug Resistance 1) makes affected animals sensitive to certain drugs. The first drug that this defect was found to be present for was Ivermectin, used to treat mange and prevent heartworm. Affected dogs suffer seizures when given this drug. It has since been found that the mutation on the MDR1 gene means that the brain is not able to efficiently pump some drugs out of its protected environment the way normal brain vessels do – hence these drugs can enter and build up in the brain tissue, and cause toxic effects such as seizures.

 

A range of drugs are usually pumped out of the brain by the protein pump that the MDR1 gene is responsible for, and so dogs carrying the defective (“mutant”) gene are sensitive to a whole range of drugs. Dogs carrying two copies of the mutant gene are more sensitive to these drugs than those with one copy of the gene. For more details on the drugs involved in this disease, information can be found at  http://vcpl.vetmed.wsu.edu/problem-drugs

 

Your vet should be aware if your dog is carrying an affected MDR1 gene, or 2 copies of the gene, as the amount of these drugs given needs to be reduced to avoid toxic effects, or alternative drugs used if available. This genetic defect is known to occur quite commonly in a number of breeds, especially Collies, and a DNA test is available to determine if your dog is carrying abnormal MDR1 gene/s or not.

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Other Conditions Which Are Less Common or Less Devastating In the Breed
These conditions are reported to have a breed predilection in the Mixed Breed, although they are less common than those mentioned earlier, or have less of an impact on the animal when they occur. Hence they are not covered in detail in this article, however further information can be found by clicking on any diseases that are highlighted. This list is not a comprehensive list of all diseases Mixed Breed may be prone to.
Subaortic Stenosis

Degenerative Myelopathy

Cutaneous Asthenia (Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome).

Distichiasis. (Extra Eyelashes)

Skin fold dermatitis

Cerebellar Abiotrophy (Cerebellar Ataxia).

Panosteitis

Sebaceous Adenitis

Renal Dysplasia

Inherited Deafness

Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

Von Willebrand’s Disease (type I)

Dental Health

You may have heard some advice about keeping your dog’s teeth clean. Many people have many different opinions on this topic. The best way to care for your dog’s teeth and oral health is to manually clean his teeth. This is not as weird as it sounds, and if you start when your puppy is young, is generally not hard to do.

Dog teeth are cleaned with specific dog toothpaste, which is safe if swallowed and usually meat flavoured. There are different flavours, so you should be able to find one your dog likes. Never use human toothpaste on your dog! The equipment you will need include a rubber thimble-like toothbrush that fits over your finger, and a doggie toothbrush for the inner side of the teeth.

First, with the thimble toothbrush, gently rub over the outside surface of the teeth (by lifting the lip and running the finger along the outer side of the teeth). Use a circular motion moving across all the teeth, especially near where the tooth meets the gum. Do the upper teeth, then the lower teeth, and repeat on the other side. Then use the doggie toothbrush to do the inner surface of the teeth (the side that faces the tongue) if your dog will accept this. If not, do not worry - it is the outer side of the teeth that is most important (the dog’s tongue cleans the inside surface).

When starting out, do not take more than 10 - 30 seconds all up, and you may or may not use toothpaste to start off. Start when your dog is a puppy, so that he learns early to accept this, and never punish him during brushing - make it as fun and enjoyable for him as possible! The toothpaste is flavoured to make to process as pleasant as possible, and to start with keep it as short as you can, just to get him used to you putting your finger in his mouth. You can gradually work up to a full brush of all teeth, but try to keep the process to less than a minute or so all up. Cleaning is usually done 2 - 3 times a week, although it is best done daily.

For more information see American Veterinary Dental College

There are additional aids that can help keep your dog’s teeth clean. Special “dental” dog foods have been proven to reduce the incidence of dental disease, either by a mechanical cleaning action of the kibble or due to infusion of anti-tartar substances within the food. Water additives are also available that help to reduce plaque accumulation. Always ensure that you choose a Veterinary Oral Health Council (VOHC) approved product, as these have been tested to ensure that they do what they claim.

Chewing helps to clean a dog’s teeth, and the more often a dog chews, the better this is for cleaning his teeth. However, it is important to avoid substances and objects that are inappropriate and may cause damage to the teeth or be dangerous if swallowed (either whole or in pieces). Chewing objects and toys should never be harder than the tooth enamel, as tooth fracture may occur, causing exposure of the sensitive tooth pulp. This causes acute pain and is a veterinary emergency. This occurs commonly with bones, including fresh, cooked, dried and preserved bones, and has been reported with deer antler.

Sticks may splinter and burrow into the soft tissues of the mouth and throat. Tennis balls have been known to wear away the outer tooth surface, exposing the softer inner pulp material. Rubber balls should be used instead of tennis balls. Rawhide chews and rubber chew toys are both recommended for chewing, so long as your dog will chew them. Greenies for dogs may also help keep teeth clean. Always ensure a chew toy or treat is of an appropriate size for your dog, and if you are not sure check with your veterinarian.

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