Misty Account - Demo Pet Profile

Congratulations !

You're about to discover the story of your dog's ancestry and genetic health

Thank you for choosing Orivet Genetic Pet Care to uncover the story of Misty's genetic ancestry and special health needs.

Knowing Misty's unique genetic makeup is more than a novelty - it is a medical necessity. Misty's breed, like family history, is associated with unique health concerns much the same as age, weight sex and lifestyle.

Knowing Misty's unique genetic makeup is more than a novelty - it is a medical necessity. Misty's breed, like family history, is associated with unique health concerns much the same as age, weight, sex and lifestyle.

We believe that combining this knowledge enables you to provide a lifetime of excellent care leading to a longer, healthier and happier life for your friend.

In this report, you will find detailed information specific to Misty's health. It is important to carefully review this report in conjunction with more details present in Misty's ONLINE ACCOUNT where you can edit, update and directly share Misty's information with your family and friends.

To gain the most value out of Misty's report, we encourage you to share and discuss this report with Misty's veterinarian. They can help you use your report to customize Misty's health care and even build a personalized wellness plan to manage Misty's health throughout Misty's life.

We hope you will find the information in this report beneficial and wish you a long and happy life with your pet.

Misty's Account

Profile

Age
5 yr
Weight
10 lbs
Sex
Male-DESEXED
Pedigree
Domestic Short Hair

Color
Grey and white
Birthdate
31 Dec 2016
ID
Microchip -382-3084=

Source
None
Insurance

People and Pets Living with me
None

Breed Details

Domestic Short Hair

General breed description

The domestic shorthair is very similar in appearance to the African Wildcat and archaeological studies have found it difficult to distinguish the two based on their skeletons alone.  The domestic shorthair is slightly smaller on average than the African Wildcat, and varies also in coat colour and temperament.

 

The domestic shorthair is in general a fairly “average” type of cat.  She does not display extremes in conformation and is a well proportioned cat.  The coat is short, and can come in almost any colour or pattern imaginable.  Eye colour can also be any colour, including odd-eyed.  The domestic shorthair is usually of an “average” size, weighing 4 - 6 kg.  Males are generally bigger than females.

 

Domestic shorthairs do vary somewhat in their appearance in different geographical areas.  For instance, those from colder European areas tend to be somewhat stocky with a thicker coat, while those in hotter climates such as South East Asia tend to be slimmer and have thinner coats.

History

The domestic shorthair (DSH), also known as the “moggie”, is not a recognised breed of cat.  All domestic cats are of the same species (Felis catus) and while many breeds have either developed largely on their own (e.g. in a certain geographic location) or have been developed by breeders, the domestic shorthair is a “wild-type” cat that is the product of natural breeding over thousands of years.  The name domestic shorthair is usually applied to any domestic cat with an unknown ancestry.

 

The domestic cat has been around for thousands of years, and is now known to have descended from the Wildcat (or Felis silvestris).  There are five subgroups of Wildcat, and recent DNA studies have shown that all domestic cats today descended from the Near Eastern Wildcat, also known as the African Wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica).  When people first started settling in established agricultural communities, these cats would have become useful by keeping rodents away from grain stores.  In return, cats found an easy source of food, and over time gained shelter and warmth from farmers in return for their mousing and ratting skills.  In this manner, over generations, the Wildcat became domesticated, and adapted gradually to suit her new environment, wherever that may have been.

 

Domestic cats can and do interbreed with Felis silvestris, and there are concerns that the true Wildcat will become extinct due to this crossbreeding in the near future.  However, it is also suggested that the domestic cat is essentially part of the same species, and you may also see the domestic cat labelled as Felis silvestris catus, indicating that it is a subspecies of the Wildcat.

Breed temperament and behaviour

Just as the appearance of the domestic shorthair may vary widely, so too may her temperament. Almost all will be playful as kittens, however it can be very difficult to predict the temperament of an adult cat.  She may be outgoing or reserved, vocal or quiet, playful or restrained.  This does mean that amongst the domestic shorthairs, there is bound to be one that is just perfect for you!

 

Temperament is also greatly influenced by a kitten’s early socialisation and care.  Spending lots of time with your kitten bonding will help her to be a more confident, settled individual as an adult.

Requirements and needs

The needs of the domestic shorthair are similar to those of all cats, in that they require a caring and protective environment and someone who is prepared to spend plenty of time with them.  While they do not require much grooming, it is a good habit to get into from a young age, and as well as removing dead hairs grooming also helps to stimulate blood flow in the skin.  A weekly comb is generally sufficient for the domestic shorthair, although more may be required for some during shedding season.

Best suited for

As there is so much variety to be found amongst the domestic shorthairs, there is one to suit almost any situation, whether it is a large family environment or a single person looking for a loving companion.

Misty's Account

Health

Confirmed Medical Conditions Current Medications

N/A

Type of Food Brand of Food

   Wet

   Cat Chicken Entrée

Supplements Dental Care

   N/A

   N/A

Treats Adverse food reactions

   N/A

   Soy

Pet Owner Concerns
Teeth & Mouth:
Bad breath
Urinary:
Strong-smelling urine
Urinary:
Strong-smelling urine

Health Risks

The list below was generated by our proprietary algorithm. It takes into account Misty's breed makeup, age, weight, sex and other lifestyle factors.

Please note. It does not mean Misty will ever actually contract any of these diseases. It only represents an increased RISK when comparing Misty's genetic information to published scientific information available.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

1

Chronic Kidney Disease

Approximately one in every 66.67 pets like Misty will develop this condition

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

From age of 7 years annual test for proteinuria and urine specific gravity (note USG does not affect HESKA® MA test, but can affect urine dipstick results) Consider urine protein/creatinine ratio.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not a single disease, but more the end result of a number of different disease processes, and is one of the leading causes of illness and death in older cats.  It is defined as kidney disease that has been present for months to years, and there are many potential causes of CKD.  Often by the time a cat is showing signs of kidney disease, the cause may be unknown. 

By the time a cat is showing clinical signs of CKD she has already lost at least 75% of the functional capacity of her kidneys.  This means 75% of the filtering units within the kidneys (called nephrons) no longer work at all.  The remaining nephrons are working as hard as they can, but they can no longer keep up with the demands placed on them for the filtration of toxins from the body, maintaining electrolyte balance, and conserving water.  Eventually they will fail too.

The more common signs of chronic kidney disease may include excessive drinking (polydypsia) and excessive urination (polyuria), poor appetite and weight loss, vomiting +/- diarrhoea, lack of energy and less inclination to play or exercise.  Cats with CKD may become anaemic due to a lack of erythropoietin (EPO) production by the kidneys, may become weak due to low potassium levels, may have high blood pressure (hypertension) due to sodium retention, and may deposit calcium in their tissues (abnormal mineralisation) due to retention of phosphorus.  Abnormal phosphorus levels can also lead to weakening of bones and sometimes can lead to pathologic bone fractures. Hypertension can cause sudden blindness, as well as damage to organs such as the heart, brain and further damage to the kidneys.  The build up of toxins that are normally excreted by the kidneys can lead to a state of acidosis and the formation of ulcers in the mouth and other parts of the gastrointestinal tract.  Platelets may not function properly and bleeding into the stomach or under the skin can occur.

Treatment of CKD usually involves dietary modification to restrict protein and phosphorus intake.  There is controversy over the restriction of protein in the diet of the feline CKD patient, as these cats often suffer from quite marked muscle wasting.  Studies have not shown any benefit in terms of survival time by restricting protein levels in the cat with CKD.  However, when phosphorus is restricted as well, survival time in one study almost tripled.  It is generally thought that the focus should be on high quality (i.e. very digestible) protein content, so that there is less metabolic waste produced for the kidneys to have to deal with, as well as focussing strongly on phosphorus control.  Phosphate binders should be given if phosphorus levels are not controlled with diet alone.

Your vet will also address any other secondary concerns such as low potassium levels, high blood pressure and anaemia.  Dehydration can be a major problem in the CKD patient, especially if vomiting is occurring or the cat is not able to drink enough to stay well hydrated.  Often fluids will be given under the skin periodically, and your vet can show you how to do this at home, to minimise the stress caused to your cat by numerous visits to the vet.  Rehydration helps the cat to feel better within herself, meaning she is more likely to eat.  Medication can also help to reduce nausea.

Chronic kidney disease cannot be cured.  All treatments, including kidney transplants, are aimed at controlling the various abnormalities associated with CKD in order to provide the patient with a good quality of life for as long as possible.  Ultimately quality of life becomes affected to the point where euthanasia will be required.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

2

Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD)

Approximately one in every 33.33 pets like Misty will develop this condition

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

There is no screening test as there can be a number of different causes. Crystalluria can be a normal finding in the cat.

Feline lower urinary tract disease (or FLUTD) is a term that covers a number of conditions of the lower urinary tract of the cat, rather than being one specific disease.  These conditions all result in similar clinical signs, hence are covered by the name FLUTD.  Cats with FLUTD usually present with one or more of the following clinical signs:

*Difficult or painful urination (known as dysuria).  This may cause straining to urinate, and cats may cry when urinating.

*Frequent urination (known as pollakiuria).  Irritation leads to frequent attempts to pass urine, even if the bladder is not full.

*Blood in the urine (known as haematuria).

*Changes in behaviour.  These may include urinating outside the litter box and urinating in inappropriate places (also called periuria).  This can occur because of the frequent urge to urinate, with your cat not having enough time to reach the litter box.  Cats may also become irritated, withdrawn and may groom the area around the perineum excessively due to pain and irritation.

*Inability to pass urine.  Total inability to pass urine can occur due to physiological or physical obstruction (i.e. a blockage).  This usually occurs in male cats, and should be treated as an immediate medical emergency. A cat that cannot pass urine will develop electrolyte imbalances, acute kidney failure and can fall into a coma and die in a very short time frame (i.e. 24-48 hours). The earlier treatment is started, the better the chances for survival.

There are a number of different causes of FLUTD in cats, but the most common is idiopathic cystitis, which is responsible for 60-70% of all cases of FLUTD.  Idiopathic cystitis means inflammation of the bladder with no identifiable cause.  It is similar to a condition in humans called “interstitial cystitis”, and stress is believed to play a major role in its development.

Other causes of FLUTD include bladder stones (called urolithiasis), which accounts for around 10-15% of cases of FLUTD, obstruction of the urinary tract with urethral plugs (which may be associated with idiopathic cystitis or with crystals in the urine and associated bladder inflammation), bacterial infection of the bladder, which is uncommon and usually seen in older cats (and is thought to represent <10% of all cases of FLUTD), anatomical defects and scarring of the urinary tract (rare), and cancer (also quite uncommon and usually seen in older cats).  There may be some breed predispositions to lower urinary tract disease, for example the Burmese and Persian breeds are reported to both be predisposed to the development of calcium oxalate uroliths (stones).

It is important that a urinalysis is performed on any cat showing signs of FLUTD, to avoid treating for the wrong underlying cause.  Recurring cases should have a full diagnostic work up, including imaging studies to rule out urolithiasis. In cases of idiopathic cystitis, the main aim of treatment is to prevent recurrence and relieve symptoms.  There is rarely a justification to withhold pain relief from any cat with FLUTD.  In the longer term, stress reduction and increasing fluid intake are important management steps.

Antibiotics are not indicated for FLUTD unless bacterial infection is present and a urine culture and sensitivity test has been carried out at a lab to ensure that the correct antibiotic is being used.  Urinary acidifiers are not currently recommended for cases of FLUTD with struvite crystals, as over-acidification of the urine can lead to problems with calcium oxalate crystals (or stones) as well as a metabolic acidosis.  An appropriate cat diet should create mildly acidic urine anyway, which should control struvite crystalluria.  Bladder stones may need to be removed surgically.

The measures best employed to avoid or reduce the frequency of FLUTD are to feed a good quality, meat-based wet food diet, to provide plenty of fresh water, and to keep stress in the environment as low as possible.  This is discussed in more detail in the following chapters.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

3

Osteoarthritis.

Approximately one in every 11.11 pets like Misty will develop this condition

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

None available. Note that screening for predisposing conditions such as hip dysplasia is available.

Traditionally, osteoarthritis (which is commonly just called arthritis) has been somewhat neglected in cats.  This may be partly because cats show the signs of arthritis differently to dogs, and it is not always obvious to owners.  However, it has been estimated that 70-90% of older cats have signs of arthritis on x-ray, while up to a third of all cats show clinical signs of arthritis.

Arthritis may be seen in all breeds of cat, and those predisposed to hip dysplasia and patellar luxation may have a higher risk of developing arthritis secondary to these conditions.  The Burmese cat seems to be particularly predisposed to developing osteoarthritis of the elbows, and at a relatively early age.  Manx cats with partial tails are very prone to painful arthritis of the tail, as the vertebrae of these stumpy tails are abnormally formed.

Arthritis results in pain in affected joints, and generally a restricted range of movement for the joint/s.  Cats with osteoarthritis will often show an increased tendency to sleep, and a reduction in activity.  Often owners will assume this is just associated with “getting old”.  Cats also tend to be reluctant to jump, and may also be less willing to climb in and out of the litter tray, and so appear to lose their litter box training. 

Where the arthritis is associated with the hip joints, there may be obvious muscle wasting over the pelvic area and in the hind limbs, and the cat may limp.  The hip area may be painful to touch, and an affected cat may resent patting of the area.  This may also be true with arthritis of the spine, with owners thinking that their older cat is getting “grumpy” in her old age.  Arthritis associated with the elbows, such as is often seen in Burmese cats, may cause the cat to walk with the elbows held out from the chest somewhat.  A cat may be less willing to jump down than she is to jump up.

Your vet will diagnose arthritis by examining and manipulating the joints, and by taking x-rays to rule out any other causes of pain (e.g. trauma, tumours etc).  Treatment is multifactorial, and may involve medication with joint supplements and an antiinflammatory that is safe for long term use in cats, provided blood tests show no other underlying disease.  It will also be necessary to adjust the home environment to make it easier for your cat to move around easily, such as ensuring that food, water and bedding is low and accessible, that ramps are installed where needed for your cat to access safe places and furniture, and that litter is easy to access (e.g. low sided litter box, or ramp to litter box).

The photo shows a cat swimming.  Swimming is a non weight-bearing exercise that can help dogs as well as cats that have arthritis in one or more joints of the limbs.  Cats can be trained to enjoy swimming - you should consult with your veterinary physiotherapist for more information.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

4

Chronic Bronchial Disease (Feline Asthma).

Approximately one in every 33.33 pets like Misty will develop this condition

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

None available at this time.

Chronic bronchial disease in cats has similarities to chronic bronchitis of humans and to human asthma.  It is also sometimes called feline asthma.  In humans, chronic bronchitis and asthma are two different diseases.  Asthma is a condition where the airways suddenly become severely narrowed, usually due to reaction to an irritant or allergen.  This can cause sudden and severe breathing difficulties, and may be rapidly fatal.  Chronic bronchitis is caused by irritants being breathed in, causing inflammation of the airways and an increase in mucous production.  Eventually this inflammation can permanently damage and narrow the airways.  The most common cause of this in humans is smoking.

The signs of chronic bronchial disease in cats may include one or all of: rapid or laboured breathing, coughing, wheezing, panting or open-mouth breathing, lethargy, exercise intolerance and occasionally sudden onset of severe difficulty in breathing with gasping and wheezing (similar to an asthma attack in people).  Any difficulty breathing requires emergency treatment in a veterinary hospital, and is usually responsive to oxygen, bronchodilators and antiinflammatories.

Chronic bronchial disease is diagnosed by ruling out other causes of breathing problems, and usually involves blood tests, x-rays, scoping of the airways, and a bronchiolar lavage (sterile saline flushed into the airways then removed for examination).  Treatment is generally life-long and involves using an inhaler system to deliver antiinflammatories +/- bronchodilators into the lungs.  This is generally well tolerated by cats, and avoids the side effects associated with using long term systemic (e.g. tablets) antiinflammatory therapy.

Chronic bronchial disease is a common disease of cats.  The causes are not well understood, but are probably similar to those associated with chronic bronchitis and asthma in humans.  Signs may be fairly constant or may come and go, and they may vary in their severity between individuals.  Cats of any age, breed and sex may be affected by chronic bronchial disease, but it is most commonly seen in cats aged 2-6 years old (mean age of 4).  There is a marked predisposition in Siamese and related breeds, which may be due to a genetic influence.  Certainly a genetic factor is believed to be involved in human asthma.  Siamese also may be prone to develop more serious signs when they have the disease (as compared to other breeds) and also to develop the condition at a younger age.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

5

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM).

Approximately one in every 10 pets like Misty will develop this condition

AFFECTED

Screening Suggestions (when available)

1. Recommend genetic screening of all breeding animals (if available) at or before 1 year of age. 2. Echocardiography at 1 year of age and recommend yearly for breeding animals for 3-4 years of age, then repeat every 2-3 years 3. Careful auscultation of all animals annually and echocardiogram of any animals with abnormal auscultation findings

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart condition in cats, with familial (inherited) forms of the disease having been recognised in a number of breeds.  The disease in cats is assumed to be similar to the disease in humans, where currently 4341 have been shown to cause HCM.  Ragdolls, Persians and Maine coons are amongst breeds with the highest rates of disease due to HCM.

HCM causes abnormal thickening of the heart muscle, and this means that the heart cannot function properly.  Thickening of the ventricle of the heart leads to muscle stiffness and less effective contraction.  Blood tends to become “backed up” through the atrium and into the veins of the lungs.  Eventually this leads to leakage of fluid into the air spaces, which is called pulmonary oedema.  When this happens, the cat has congestive heart failure.  As well as congestive heart failure, HCM can lead to arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms) and sometimes this can cause sudden death without any prior clinical signs being seen.  Another uncommon complication of HCM is aortic thromboembolism, where a blood clot forms in the enlarged left atrium and at some point leaves the heart and lodges in the aorta - often where it narrows and branches to go to the hindlimbs.  This leads to a lack of blood flow to and subsequent paralysis of the hind legs, and is very painful.  Clots may less commonly lodge elsewhere, such as in the lungs or brain.

HCM can occur at any age, although is more often seen in adult to middle aged cats.  The exception is in the ragdoll, where it is common to see heart failure by 2 - 3years of age.  Diagnosis of HCM is based on a cardiac ultrasound (echocardiogram), and should generally be performed by a specialist. 

There is no cure for HCM, although if thickening of the heart muscle is secondary to another disease, such as hyperthyroidism, treatment of the primary condition may resolve the cardiac condition.  Treatment of HCM aims to manage signs of congestive heart failure, and reduce the abnormality of muscle relaxation as much as possible.  Recent studies have shown that calcium channel blockers have shown good results at improving heart function and blood flow around the body.  Drugs to control arrhythmias are given if needed.  Therapy is often given to try to prevent blood clots from forming in the heart (e.g. aspirin), although studies have shown that this treatment is not all that effective, and will not get rid of clots that have already formed.  This treatment must be monitored carefully, as it can also lead to an increased risk of bleeding. 

Genetic testing is available for several breeds, including MYBPC3 mutations that occur in the ragdoll and Maine coon.  These are both dominant mutations with variable expression.  There is also a test for the HCM2 mutation that occurs in several breeds (British shorthair, Maine coon, Norwegian forest cat, Persian, ragdoll) however this mutation has low penetrance and cats with this mutation may never go on to develop clinical disease.  Ultrasound screening remains important in breeds with this form of cardiomyopathy.

  1. Kittleson, Mark. 2007.  In: Bengals Illustrated, Origins and Inspirations Edition.  https://www.bengalsillustrated.com/products-page/back-issues/origins-and-inspirations/

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

6

Feline Diabetes Mellitus.

Approximately one in every 172.41 pets like Misty will develop this condition

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

1. Fructosamine levels annually from 4-5 years of age. 2. Glucose intolerance or insulin resistance will be seen prior to clinical signs of hyperglycaemia - consider glucose tolerance test if required.

Diabetes mellitus is a complex disease that occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin, and/or does not respond to insulin properly.  Insulin is a hormone that controls the movement of glucose from the blood into cells, where it is used for energy.  By far the most common type of diabetes in cats (called feline diabetes mellitus) is a form that is very similar to type 2 diabetes mellitus of humans.  Type 2 diabetes makes up 80 - 95% of feline diabetes mellitus cases.  The remaining cases are generally associated with concurrent diseases, such as pancreatitis, Cushing\'s disease, hyperthyroidism and acromegaly.

Feline diabetes mellitus is thought to have a genetic component, and does show certain breed dispositions.  Burmese cats of UK ancestry are affected most commonly, although not Burmese cats descending from the USA.  (For example about 1 in every 50 Burmese cats in Australia are affected, compared to 1 in every 200 domestic cats).  This predisposition also flows to breeds descending from the Burmese, such as the Tonkinese.

The disease most commonly affects middle aged, overweight cats, and affected cats have a genetic predisposition to insulin resistance.  Environmental factors such as being overweight, low activity levels, diet and male gender (gender is not a factor in the Burmese) also affect whether or not a predisposed individual will go on to develop diabetes.

A cat with diabetes has persistently high levels of glucose in the blood, which then leads to glucose being excreted in the urine.  This causes an increase in the amount of urine produced, and so a cat will drink more to compensate.  Often a cat will eat more, although she will be losing weight because she cannot use the food she eats for energy very efficiently.  Instead of being able to use glucose from normal metabolism for energy (i.e. proteins in her food) the body will break down fat as an alternate energy source, and this causes an increase in acids in the body. 

Sometimes a cat may develop ketoacidosis, a very serious condition where she will become lethargic, dehydrated and will not eat, will be vomiting, and if not treated quickly and intensively, may die. 

Other complications of feline diabetes mellitus that may develop include urinary tract infections, and less commonly peripheral neuropathy (weakness or paralysis of the hind legs - sometimes this is painful and sometimes the cat cannot feel anything in the hind feet), and retinopathy (i.e. changes in the retina at the back of the eye leading to loss of vision).

Some cats can be managed with diet change and oral hypoglycaemic drugs; however 50 - 75% of cats with diabetes will require insulin injections.  This is an injection under the skin, and does not hurt the cat.  Weight loss is an important part of treatment, because once a cat has lost excess weight, she may not require insulin treatment any more.  This is called remission, and around a third of all diabetic cats will develop remission (i.e. will no longer need insulin) within 1 - 4 months of starting treatment for diabetes mellitus.  Studies show that feeding a high protein, low carbohydrate diet is most effective for helping control this condition.

Prevention in a predisposed cat (which includes any relative of an affected cat and any lean cat with reduced glucose tolerance) includes feeding a high protein, low carbohydrate diet, ensuring she maintains a healthy weight, and ensuring that she maintains an active lifestyle.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

7

Gingivitis and Periodontal Disease

Approximately one in every 1.33 pets like Misty will develop this condition

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

None available other than for brachycephalic conformation. See brachycephalic syndrome for screening details

Gingivitis refers to the inflammation of the gums (or gingiva), and in the cat this appears as a thin red line just above the gum margin.  Gingivitis is caused by the body\'s immune response to certain types of bacteria that become adhered to dental calculus which is sitting against the gums.  Calculus (also called tartar) forms when plaque becomes mineralised.  Plaque is a thin film that forms on the surface of the tooth, and minerals such as calcium and phosphate from saliva and the gingiva themselves lead to the formation of hard calculus.  This calculus allows certain bacteria to colonise and grow, and these disease-causing bacteria growing in the gap between the tooth and the gums, excrete toxins, and lead to inflammation.  This causes reddening, swelling and pain.  Cats may have pain on eating and be reluctant to eat, may drool when eating or may turn the head when eating, and may only eat soft food.  They may develop bad breath.

Gingivitis in cats has also been associated with certain infectious diseases, most notably feline calicivirus, and less commonly feline herpes virus, FIV and FeLV.  There is thought to be a genetic predisposition to gingivitis in some breeds, as juvenile forms of the disease are seen in some breeds, such as the Persian, the Abyssinian and Somali, the Siamese and other Oriental short hair breeds, the Burmese, and the Maine coon.  Breeds with brachycephalic conformation are thought to be predisposed, due to overcrowding of the mouth.  Gingivitis is relatively common in cats.  These predisposed cats are generally affected at a young age, between 1-2 years, whereas in the general cat population this condition is more common as age increases, from 4 years up to 13 years. 

Gingivitis is treated by veterinarians under anaesthesia, by using professional dental instrumentation to remove calculus and plaque, and then polish teeth to smooth the enamel.  Cleaning the teeth at home to remove plaque in the future is an important part of management in most cases.  Professional dental chews have been shown in studies to reduce plaque accumulation (but not stop it) between veterinary dental teeth cleaning visits.  Barrier gels have also been shown to have a similar effect.

Periodontal disease occurs as a natural progression from gingivitis, and refers to inflammation of the soft and hard tissue structures that anchor the tooth to the jaw.  Calculus and gingivitis lead to gingival recession and widening of the pocket between the tooth and the gum, allowing food debris, further plaque and calculus to accumulate. Harmful bacteria lead to ongoing inflammation that moves deeper into the structures below the gum-line, where the root of the tooth is located.  While gingivitis may be reversed with professional dental treatment and improved dental hygiene at home (+/- antibiotic therapy for a time), periodontal disease does reach a point where it becomes irreversible.  The periodontal ligament and alveolar bone which attaches the tooth root are slowly destroyed, leading to loose teeth, and eventually loss of the teeth involved.  Chronic periodontal disease has also been associated with a shortened life span, damage to the kidneys leading to chronic kidney failure, as well as possible chronic damage to the heart and liver.

Periodontal disease is associated with pain, and signs of gingivitis.  In addition to the signs described above cats may paw at their mouth or drop food from the mouth when eating, and occasionally cry out in pain.  The gums may bleed and may be receded away from the root of one or more teeth.  X-rays are needed to fully assess how much destruction has occurred below the gum-line.  Teeth with damaged periodontal structures often need to be removed, and part of the bony socket is also removed to provide a bacteria-free environment for healing without further inflammation.  All teeth are scaled and polished to treat associated gingivitis.

Most consistent results for treating and eliminating periodontal disease have been reported when all teeth located behind the canine teeth are removed. In addition, some of the affected gingiva (gum-line) is removed from around these extracted teeth and a healthy \"flap\" is formed and sutured together.  This is to aid healing.   Medications such as antibiotics, antiinflammatories and/or immunomodulators may also be beneficial. 

Some cats with periodontal disease may develop inflammation not just of the gums but of the entire mouth (called stomatitis, or faucitis).  This is an incredibly painful and debilitating condition.  Medical therapies are often trialled, but in general it will be necessary to remove all the teeth, including the roots and root sockets, to finally stop the inflammatory response (and therefore pain) within the mouth.  These cats are thought to have developed an allergic-type of response to the bacteria that grow on the plaque that is associated with tooth structures.  Not all cats will recover, but often remission can be achieved if every single structure associated with a tooth is meticulously removed from the mouth, and x-rays are carefully checked to ensure nothing is missed during this process.

In rare cases cats with severe periodontal disease have to be euthanised due to severe ongoing pain, suffering and weight loss associated with the condition.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

8

Hyperthyroidism

Approximately one in every 11.11 pets like Misty will develop this condition

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

1. Thorough history, examination and weigh at every regular recommended examination from 7 years of age, including neck palpation. 2. Consider T4 if any concern re: hyperthyroidism.

Hyperthyroidism is a common disease of cats where there is an overproduction of thyroid hormone.  There are two thyroid glands, one on each side of the neck.  In most cases (more than 70%) hyperthyroidism occurs due to a benign disease of the thyroid glands called “nodular hyperplasia”, the underlying cause of which is not fully understood.  Some cases are due to a benign tumour called a thyroid adenoma, which generally affects just one thyroid gland, not both.  Rarely, hyperthyroidism may be due to a malignant tumour of the thyroid, called a thyroid adenocarcinoma.

Recent studies have suggested possible links between an increased rate of hyperthyroidism in cats and a diet high in fish, which tend to accumulate fire retardant chemicals called PBDEs.  This is by no means the only mechanism involved in the development of feline hyperthyroidism, with other postulated factors including dietary iodine levels, dietary soy content and dietary bisphenol A (BPA) to name just a few.

Hyperthyroidism affects almost all organs in the body, and so can have quite a wide variety of clinical signs.  The most commonly seen include:  weight loss despite a normal or often increased appetite, increased thirst, restlessness or irritability, an increased heart rate, and often a poor coat.  Sometimes vomiting and/or diarrhoea is seen, and occasionally cats may become depressed and develop a poor appetite.

Hyperthyroidism is diagnosed by your veterinarian, usually by measuring the level of thyroid hormone (T4) in the blood.  A full blood screen and urine test is carried out to screen for other illness that can be present either at the same time as, or as a consequence of the hyperthyroidism.  Because hyperthyroidism is generally a disease of middle aged to older cats, other diseases such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) may also be present.  In fact, the hyperthyroidism can mask the signs of CKD.  Heart disease can result from hyperthyroidism, which causes persistently high heart rates and increased force of contraction of the heart.  Sometimes liver enzymes are also increased.  Hypertension (high blood pressure) is another common consequence of hyperthyroidism, and can lead to further damage to organs such as the eyes, kidneys, brain and heart.

There are three main classes of treatment for hyperthyroidism, and treatment of secondary diseases such as heart disease or hypertension may also be required initially.  The treatment of choice in most cases is radioactive iodine.  This involves a hospital stay of around a week in a specialised facility, where an affected cat is given an injection of radioactive iodine.  This iodine accumulates in the abnormal thyroid tissue which is producing the excess thyroid hormone, and the radioactivity kills the abnormal cells.  The cat stays in hospital while the radioactive material is excreted from the body.  This procedure has a 95% success rate, with few side effects and in most cases a cure is obtained.

The other treatment options are medical management with anti-thyroid medications, such as carbimazole tablets or methimazole transdermal cream.  This medication is required twice daily for life, and blocks the production of thyroid hormone, thereby controlling the levels of thyroid hormone.  It is relatively cheap, and usually associated with few side effects.  Some cats may experience transient vomiting and inappetance, although this is usually less so with carbimazole than methimazole tablets, and also occurs less with transdermal creams, which are usually applied to the inside of the ear, and are very well tolerated.

Less commonly performed now than in the past is surgical resection of the abnormal thyroid tissue.  This may be the preferred option for a malignant tumour however, so nuclear scanning at a specialist facility may be a good idea if you want to rule this out.  Malignant tumours occur in 1-3% of feline hyperthyroid cases.  Surgical removal of abnormal thyroid tissue does provide a cure, however there are risks with anaesthetising hyperthyroid cats, especially if some degree of heart disease is present.  There is also a major risk of damage to the parathyroid glands, which sit next to or within the thyroid glands, and are responsible for the regulation of calcium levels in the blood.  Low calcium levels post-operatively can cause seizures.  The risk is not as high with disease in only one thyroid gland (i.e. surgery to one side of the neck only).

A new treatment is being promoted in the form of a diet low in iodine, with the idea that low iodine levels in the diet will prevent thyroid hormone from being formed.  There is some controversy regarding this approach, as some have postulated than chronic low iodine in the feline diet may be a contributing factor to the development of hyperthyroidism as a disease.  Also a chronic low iodine state may have other deleterious health effects on the body.  This approach is recommended by most feline practitioners currently as a last resort option only.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

9

Lymphoma

Approximately one in every 833.33 pets like Misty will develop this condition

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

Not available at this time.

Lymphoma is the most common cancer affecting cats, and is a cancer of a type of white blood cell called a lymphocyte.  Lymphoma (which used to be called lymphosarcoma) is a solid cancer that may occur in the lymph nodes (which contain lymphocytes) or in almost any other tissue of the body.  This is because as well as being a white blood cell, the lymphocyte is an immune cell that is widespread throughout the body and moves through the tissues of the body constantly.  Lymphoma is a malignant tumour of the lymphocytes, and so can occur anywhere where there are lymphocytes.

Previously, in areas with high levels of feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), the majority of lymphoma cases in cats were attributed to infection with this retrovirus.  However as recent studies in the USA suggest, vaccination programs from the 1980s onwards in that country has largely removed this disease as a source of lymphoma in today’s pet cat population.  FeLV infection was associated with certain types of lymphoma, including multicentric (where many lymph nodes are affected) and mediastinal (where the thymus, located in the middle of the chest, was affected).  The most common form of lymphoma in cats today is gastrointestinal, and not associated with retroviral infection.

Chronic inflammation has been shown to be important in the development of cancer in cats, and it is thought that conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease may predispose a cat to gastrointestinal lymphoma.  Cats with vaccine-induced sarcomas (an inflammation-associated tumour) are also more likely to develop lymphoma, and there is also thought to be a link between tobacco smoke and the development of feline lymphoma.

There are also noted breed dispositions, with the Siamese breed having a noted predisposition to developing lymphoma.  A potentially recessive pattern of inheritance has been suggested based on linage studies.  Siamese cats in Australia, Europe and the USA tend to develop mediastinal lymphoma in particular, and at a young age (less than two years old).

Unlike dogs, most cats are obviously ill when diagnosed with lymphoma, and signs will be attributed to the location(s) of the tumour.  For example, with mediastinal lymphoma, there may be free fluid accumulating in the chest cavity, and a cat may show signs of respiratory distress, as well as weight loss.  There is generally no cure for lymphoma, and the average survival time after diagnosis is 4-6 weeks.  With chemotherapy most cats will go into “remission” for a period of time, and the average survival time is 6 months.  Occasionally, cats may survive longer than a year.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

10

Inherited/ Congenital Deafness.

No prevalence data is currently available

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

1. Routine hearing tests in all white kittens from 6-8 weeks 2. BAER testing recommended at 6-8 weeks of age as only reliable way to detect unilateral deafness.

There are several types of deafness which vary depending on the location of the abnormality that causes the loss of hearing.  Congenital deafness in cats is generally inherited in association with the genes for white pigmentation and blue eyes, and although this is described as a dominant type of inheritance, the pattern of inheritance is not a simple one and is thought to be influenced by other genes (polygenic mechanism).

Inherited deafness is most commonly seen in white cats with two blue eyes.  It is less commonly seen in white cats with one blue eye, and even less commonly in white cats with no blue eyes (i.e. with two non-blue coloured eyes).  Deafness is thought to occur due to a lack of pigmented cells within the inner ear, which appear to be vital for maintaining the blood supply to the sensory hair cells of the cochlear.  Deafness is not present from birth, but is lost at around 3 - 4 weeks of age.  Hence hearing testing on white cats should be carried out at around 6 - 8 weeks of age.

In a large study of mixed breed white cats, 50% of cats in the study were affected by inherited deafness to some degree (i.e. were deaf in one or both ears).  In cats with two blue eyes, 85% were affected by deafness, while cats with one blue eye suffered deafness in 40% of cases.  White cats with no blue eyes showed deafness only 17% of the time.  It has also been found that the only reliable way to diagnose unilateral deafness (that is, deafness in one ear only) is by specialised testing known as the brain stem auditory evoked response (BAER).  This testing involves putting electrodes over the kittens head, and measuring the brain waves occurring in response to a noise that is introduced into the ear canal.

Deaf kittens may fail to wake up in response to a loud noise, or may fail to react to the source of a sound.  These kittens rely on their littermates for visual cues, and may cry loudly when separated from their littermates.  They may also be rougher than usual with their littermates, as they cannot hear them cry, which would be the usual signal that they are hurt and it is time to stop rough play.  A deaf cat from an at risk breed should be assumed to have hereditary deafness unless very strong evidence exists for an acquired form (e.g. known exposure to an ototoxin).  Even then, it may be prudent to desex a deaf animal to prevent inherited deafness from possibly being passed on.

A deaf cat can make a very good indoor pet, but she should not be allowed outside, as she will be at high risk of injury due to vehicles or dogs that she cannot hear coming.  People in her home, especially children, should be taught not to startle her (e.g. wake her suddenly or touch her from behind when she is not expecting it) as cats have a very strong startle response, and she may lash out and injure them in fright.

DNA Tests Result

Clear : 18 Carrier : 4 At Risk : 2

Metabolic - Associated with the enzymes and metabolic processes of cells

CLEAR : 8

CARRIER : 2

Urogenital (Associated with the Urinary and Genital Tracts)

CLEAR : 1

POSITIVE : 1

Nervous system / Neurologic - Associated with the brain, spinal cord and nerves

CLEAR : 3

--

Haemolymphatic - Associated with the blood and lymph

CLEAR : 2

CARRIER : 1

Ophthalmologic - Associated with the eyes and associated structures

CLEAR : 1

--

Cardiorespiratory (Associated with Heart and Lungs)

CLEAR : 1

POSITIVE : 1

Musculoskeletal - Associated with muscles, bones and associated structures

CLEAR : 2

CARRIER : 1

Misty's Account

Nutrition

We would recommend feeding Misty a good quality wet food with an animal protein as the first listed ingredient. You may feed kitten food for the first 8-12 months followed by adult food formulation. You may adjust this further to suit the lifestyle, age and level of activity Misty will be engaged in (see below).

Activity Level
Low
Breeding Female
Daily Energy Requirements
263-329 kcal

Type of Food
Wet
Brand of Food
Cat Chicken Entrée
Product Name
Pro Plan Cat Chicken Entrée

Daily Amount Fed
1 cup
Supplements
Dental Care
None

Treats
Adverse food reactions
Soy

General Nutritional Advice for Kittens and Cats

The first thing that we must remember is that the cat is a strict carnivore, and so relies upon nutrients found solely in animal tissues to meet her specific nutritional requirements. The cat has evolved eating a diet of mainly small rodents, as well as birds and small lizards, and in her natural desert environment would typically have eaten 8 - 10+ small meals a day. This diet was high in protein, contained a moderate amount of fat, and was low in carbohydrate (see table 1).

More and more specialists in feline internal medicine now recommend feeding cats a diet of canned (moist or wet) cat food, and NOT dry kibble. There are three main reasons why dry food is not considered an appropriate food for cats:

1. The water content is too low (most important!).
2. The carbohydrate content is too high.
3. The type of protein is inappropriate (i.e. plant-based instead of animalbased protein).

(% of calories)
Protein More than 50
Fat 30 - 40
Carbohydrates < 10
(% of diet, approx.)
Moisture 60 - 70
Calcium 1.2
Phosphorus 1.0
Fibre 1.2

Without looking at specific brands of canned cat foods, think in terms of the broad principle that ANY canned food is better than ANY dry food.

Many cat food companies (and some vets) will tell you that all wet food diets will lead to dental disease and that you must feed dry food to avoid this - in their natural environment this is not how cats clean their teeth! Cats keep their teeth clean mainly by tearing into fresh meat, with a smaller contribution from crunching the bones of the occasional larger kill (Most small kills such as mice are eaten virtually whole). A cat’s saliva is also well designed to keep her teeth clean, if her diet is appropriate for her as a carnivore. Feeding occasional large pieces of cooked meat (without bones) is one way to help keep your cat’s teeth clean. We will cover dental health more later.

Dogs, being omnivores like us, do require some meat protein in their diet, but they have evolved essentially as scavengers, and are able to utilise nutrients found in plants as well as animals. Cats are very different to dogs. They lack many of the enzymes and metabolic processes within the body that allow dogs to process nutrients from plants. Cats are also unable to make for themselves many of the essential nutrients that dogs can synthesise within their bodies - such as essential amino acids, vitamins, and fatty acids. An example of this is vitamin D - cats cannot convert vitamin D to its active form in the skin with exposure to UV light from the sun, as dogs and people do. They must eat active vitamin D, which is found in animal tissues.

Misty's Account

Life Plan

Misty's Life Plan

Kitten

6-10 weeks


10-14 weeks


14-18 weeks

Junior

18 weeks - 2 years

Prime

2-6 years

 What the veterinarian does
Annual full examination. Core vaccines as recommended by your veterinarian.

Weigh, assess body condition. Discuss ongoing nutrition needs.
 Disease screening

Eye exam.

Check heart.

Consider minimum database blood collection (as below) from 4-5 yrs.

. examine cornea for cloudiness or haziness annually
. UA and blood glucose annually (prim renal glycosuria)


. examine cornea for cloudiness or haziness annually
. UA and blood glucose annually (prim renal glycosuria)
 Routine Care Alerts
  • Rabies: Your pet is due on 5th of June 2019 for vaccination ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. Some "Core" routine vaccines for adults may be give only once every 3 years, but may need titre testing to confirm immunity Please consult with your veterinarian.
  • Canine cough: Your pet is due on 5th of June 2019 for Kennel (Canine) Cough vaccination ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. If you dog does not associate with other dogs on a regular basis or planning a stay at a boarding facility, they may not need to have this vaccine. Please discuss this with your veterinarian if you have any concerns.
  • Parvo/distemper/hepatitis: Your pet is due on 5th of June 2021 for vaccination of the main core vaccines ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. Core vaccines for adults are usually due every 3 years, but this may change depending on your veterinarian's recommendations.
Mature

6-10 years

Senior

10-14 years

Geriatric

Over 14 years

Health Alerts

Routine Care Reminder Owner-initiated Reminder
Health Alert Disease Screening Suggestion
Health Advise
Health Alert
Misty likely has a problem within her urinary system

Depending on your vet’s findings, it is likely that they might want to test Misty’s urine and/or blood.

When urinary accidents occur, it’s important to keep in mind that there is often a medical and/or behavioral reason for the change. Common medical reasons for changes in urinary habits can include hormonal conditions (e.g. diabetes, heart disease and others), the presence of inflammation, an infection, or crystals/stones within the bladder or kidneys, liver disease, reproductive system conditions, certain tumors, and a host of others.

Common behavioral conditions that can result in changes in urinary habits include incomplete potty training, old age/senility changes, fear/submissive behavior, territory marking, and others.

A veterinarian can help determine if a change in urinary habits is a result of a medical or behavioral problem (or both), and they can make recommendations for treatments or behavioral modifications that can help.



There is a tone of information available for pet owners which can sometimes be contradicting or confusing. If you are not sure, we encourage you to talk to professionals you trust. If the advise you get is not working for you get another opinion. Veterinarians are often good sources of health information, they are highly trained professionals and the cost may well save you more trouble in the long run.

Health Advise
Not Vaccinating Misty can leave her exposed to fatal disease !

Primary vaccination is essential in order to prevent the once common puppy diseases that caused high levels of fatality from returning. However, recent research indicates that not all vaccines require yearly boosters.

 

There is no evidence that annual booster vaccination is anything but beneficial to the majority of pets. Published research has shown conclusively that omitting to re-inoculate against some of the major diseases can put your pet at risk. To establish whether boosters are necessary for your pet, blood tests to measure the amount of antibodies (antibody titers) are sometimes recommended. Unfortunately, these tests are often more expensive than revaccination and may be stressful to your Cat.

 

If you want to ensure that your pet receives the highest standard of care and protection, he or she should be seen by your veterinarian for a  "wellness examination" on at least an annual basis."

 

Since pets age at a more rapid rate than humans do, it is important to their health to ensure that they receive a complete physical examination on at least an annual basis, and more frequently as they approach their senior years. It’s best to discuss vaccine schedule that is deemed to be most appropriate for your Cat with your veterinarian. 


Bad breath can be a sign of disease

It might surprise you to know that 70% of cogs over the age of two have some degree of dental or periodontal disease. Just as with people, Misty’s gums should be pink and her teeth white and clean. Bad breath may mean that Misty has dental disease (even if her teeth look clean to you), but bad breath can also be a sign of kidney disease, diabetes, oral ulcers or tumors, and quite a few other conditions. 

 
Cats often need their teeth professionally cleaned under anesthesia a number of times in their lifetime to stay healthy and prevent these avoidable treatment costs. Imagine how not brushing your teeth for months or years would impact YOUR HEALTH (or even your social life)! Some cats actually LOVE to have their teeth brushed. Ask your veterinarian about cat-specific tooth brushes, toothpastes, special dental toys, treats, rinses, and foods that can help keep Misty’s teeth and gums clean and healthy


Living with outdoor cats can increase your pet?s risk to disease.

Misty can get certain diseases and parasites from other cats, especially if they go outside. Tapeworms are spread by fleas, which are common on cats. Ticks, which are commonly found on outdoor cats can spread Q fever (Australia) Lyme disease (USA) and other debilitating conditions when they bite a dog. Cats hunting rodents and other wildlife can spread leptospirosis (a nasty and devastating bacterial infection that can severely damage the kidneys). Dogs can then spread leptospirosis to people who accidently come in contact with that dog?s dribbled urine! Fortunately, there are vaccines that can help protect Misty including diseases, along with safe and effective parasite preventatives to keep her flea, tick, and intestinal worm free. Be sure to discuss Misty?s vaccination and parasite prevention needs with your veterinarian each year at her wellness check-ups ? the information you?ve provided in this risk assessment will go a long way towards helping with these discussions and decisions.


Most dogs greatly benefit from frequent exercise and mental stimulation

Based on your feedback, you should consider taking Misty out at least twice a week to do some kind of activity, this will enhance her level of health and comfort. Check out the suggested games section in the resource tab for some ideas that may be suitable for Misty, even a gentle stroll outside can be fun for Misty


Not Vaccinating Misty can leave her exposed to fatal disease !

Primary vaccination is essential in order to prevent the once common puppy diseases that caused high levels of fatality from returning. However, recent research indicates that not all vaccines require yearly boosters.

 

There is no evidence that annual booster vaccination is anything but beneficial to the majority of pets. Published research has shown conclusively that omitting to re-inoculate against some of the major diseases can put your pet at risk. To establish whether boosters are necessary for your pet, blood tests to measure the amount of antibodies (antibody titers) are sometimes recommended. Unfortunately, these tests are often more expensive than revaccination and may be stressful to your Cat.

 

If you want to ensure that your pet receives the highest standard of care and protection, he or she should be seen by your veterinarian for a  "wellness examination" on at least an annual basis."

 

Since pets age at a more rapid rate than humans do, it is important to their health to ensure that they receive a complete physical examination on at least an annual basis, and more frequently as they approach their senior years. It’s best to discuss vaccine schedule that is deemed to be most appropriate for your Cat with your veterinarian. 

Routine Care Reminder
Heartworms

Heartworms: Your pet's heartworm prevention is due on 5th of July 2018. Don't forget to give it today, or order some more !


Tapeworms

Tapeworms: Your pet is due on 5th of September 2018 for Tapeworm parasite control ! Please give the medication as directed. Note you may have received this notification if the parasite control product you are using does not cover Tapeworms, please contact your veterinarian if you have any concerns.


Fleas

Fleas: Your pet's flea control is overdue. Please apply the medication as directed. In winter times where there are no fleas you may be able to stop this medication, please contact your veterinarian to discuss if you have any concerns.


Rabies

Rabies: Your pet is due on 5th of June 2019 for vaccination ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. Some "Core" routine vaccines for adults may be give only once every 3 years, but may need titre testing to confirm immunity Please consult with your veterinarian.


Canine Cough

Canine cough: Your pet is due on 5th of June 2019 for Kennel (Canine) Cough vaccination ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. If you dog does not associate with other dogs on a regular basis or planning a stay at a boarding facility, they may not need to have this vaccine. Please discuss this with your veterinarian if you have any concerns.


Parvo/Distemper/Hepatitis

Parvo/distemper/hepatitis: Your pet is due on 5th of June 2021 for vaccination of the main core vaccines ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. Core vaccines for adults are usually due every 3 years, but this may change depending on your veterinarian's recommendations.

Misty's Account

Alerts

Routine Care Reminder

 

Due Date

Heartworms: Your pet's heartworm prevention is due on 5th of July 2018. Don't forget to give it today, or order some more !

Last Given 06/05/2018     Next Date 07/05/2018

 

Due Date

Tapeworms: Your pet is due on 5th of September 2018 for Tapeworm parasite control ! Please give the medication as directed. Note you may have received this notification if the parasite control product you are using does not cover Tapeworms, please contact your veterinarian if you have any concerns.

Last Given 06/05/2018     Next Date 09/05/2018

 

Due Date

Fleas: Your pet's flea control is overdue. Please apply the medication as directed. In winter times where there are no fleas you may be able to stop this medication, please contact your veterinarian to discuss if you have any concerns.

Last Given 06/05/2018     Next Date 09/05/2018

 

Due Date

Rabies: Your pet is due on 5th of June 2019 for vaccination ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. Some "Core" routine vaccines for adults may be give only once every 3 years, but may need titre testing to confirm immunity Please consult with your veterinarian.

Last Given 06/05/2018     Next Date 06/05/2019

 

Due Date

Canine cough: Your pet is due on 5th of June 2019 for Kennel (Canine) Cough vaccination ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. If you dog does not associate with other dogs on a regular basis or planning a stay at a boarding facility, they may not need to have this vaccine. Please discuss this with your veterinarian if you have any concerns.

Last Given 06/05/2018     Next Date 06/05/2019

 

Due Date

Parvo/distemper/hepatitis: Your pet is due on 5th of June 2021 for vaccination of the main core vaccines ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. Core vaccines for adults are usually due every 3 years, but this may change depending on your veterinarian's recommendations.

Last Given 06/05/2018     Next Date 06/05/2021